Wright, A., Marino, F. E., Kay, D., Micalos, P., Fanning, C., Canno, J., & Noakes, T. D. (2002). Influence of lean body mass on performance differences of male and female distance runners in warm, humid environments. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118, 285-291.

Distance completed was similar for both groups. However, when lean body mass (LBM) was used as a covariate; the distances run were significantly different favoring females. When body mass was used as a covariate, distance run favored males. Thermoregulatory responses and heart rates were similar for all groups. Avenues for heat loss and gain were altered relative to the menstrual cycle phase.

Implication. Females appear to be inherently more efficient than males. When corrected for LBM, females outperform males with less oxygen consumption per kg of LBM.

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