Lieferman, J. A., Jones, N. A., Dangelmaier, B. S., Dedrick, G. S., Burt, S. E., Swetmon, J. K., & Hill, D. W. (1995). Temporal specificity in exercise training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 124.

Morning and afternoon responses to anaerobic work were measured in college women before and after a training program that was performed at only one time of day.

Time to exhaustion and anaerobic capacity were greatest at the time of training. Either training at a particular time of day results in greater adaptations at that time of day, or it influences the phase of the circadian rhythm response to exercise.

Implication. The time of day when training is performed affects performance at that time. In serious athletes who compete at specific times in the day/night, the last phase of training should be performed at the same time as the anticipated competitive efforts.

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