Volume 9(2): October, 2003
IMAGERY IN SPORTS 3
This second issue of Volume 9 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with mental imagery and covert behavior in sports. It is preceded by previous issues titled Imagery in Sports and Imagery in Sports 2, which can be accessed by clicking these links.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IMAGERY CONCEPTS AND RESEARCH
MENTAL PRACTICE EFFECTS ARE ALTERED BY ANXIETY LEVELS Hilvari, H. (1996). Effects of mental practice on performance are moderated by cognitive anxiety as measured by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83, 1375-1383.
IMAGERY ENHANCES LEARNING Bohan, M., Pharmer, J. A., & Stokes, A. F. (1999). When does imagery practice enhance performance on a motor task? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 651-658.
CHALLENGING INTERPRETATIONS OF IMPORTANT SITUATIONS ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY BETTER THAN PRESSURE INTERPRETATIONS Hale, B. D., & Whitehouse, A. (1998). The effects of imagery-manipulated appraisal on intensity and direction of competitive anxiety. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 40-51.
EXTERNAL FOCUS IS BEST FOR BEGINNERS Wulf, G., Shea, C., & Park, J-H. (2001). Attention and motor performance: Preferences for and advantages of an external focus. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 335-344.
SPORT IMAGERY IS A MENTAL SKILL Saarmann, I. P. (July 2002). Effects of an abbreviated mental skills training program on imagery in track and field. Unpublished mater degree thesis, San Diego State University, San Diego, California.
AVOIDANCE INSTRUCTIONS HEIGHTEN THE AWARENESS OF THE OBJECT TO BE AVOIDED Dugdale, J. R., & Eklund, R. C. (2002). Do not pay attention to the umpires; Thought suppression and task-relevant focusing strategies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 306-319.
MUSCULAR ACTIVITY PATTERNS DIFFER BETWEEN IMAGINED AND REAL TRIALS IN UNTRAINED INDIVIDUALS Slade, J. M., Landers, D. M., & Martin, P. E. (2002). Muscular activity during real and imagined movements: A test of inflow explanations. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 151-167.
TASK-IMAGERY IS BETTER FOR COMPLEX ACTIVITIES Peynircioglu, Z. F., Thompson, J. L., & Tanielian, T. B. (2000). Improvement strategies in free-throw shooting and grip-strength tasks. The Journal of General Psychology, 127, 145-156.
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVES PRODUCE BETTER IMAGERY EFFECTS Smith, D., Holmes, P., Whitemore, L., Collins, D., & Devonport, T. (2001). The effect of theoretically-based imagery scripts on field hockey performance. Journal of Sport Behavior, 24, 408-419.
IMAGERY PROMOTES BETTER SKILL LEARNING WITH AND WITHOUT VISION Meacci, W. G., & Pastore, D. L. (1995). Effects of occluded vision and imagery on putting golf balls. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80, 179-186.
APPLIED RESEARCH USING IMAGERY
MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING IS ASSOCIATED WITH PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN GOLF Thomas, P. R., & Fogarty, G. J. (1997). Psychological skills training in golf: The role of individual differences in cognitive preferences. The Sport Psychologist, 11, 86-106.
ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT STANDARDS USE DIFFERENT IMAGERY TYPES TO DEVELOP CONFIDENCE Callow, N., & Hardy, L. (2001). Types of imagery associated with sport confidence in netball players of varying skill levels. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 1-17.
SPORT CONFIDENT ATHLETES USE MORE IMAGERY Abma, C. L., Fry, M. D., Li, Y., & Relyea, G. (2002). Differences in imagery content and imagery ability between high and low confident track and field athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 67-75.
DO NOT TELL WHAT TO IMAGE BUT EMPHASIZE HOW TO IMAGE Callow, N., Hardy, L., & Hall, C. (2001). The effects of a motivational general-mastery imagery intervention on the sport confidence of high-level badminton players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 389-400.
IMAGING SHORT DURATION MAXIMUM EFFORT ACTIVITIES WORKS Mann, D. Y. (October, 2001). Imagery effectiveness across sports. Unpublished master degree thesis, San Diego State University, San Diego, California .
THINKING OF ERRORS CAUSES PERFORMANCE DECLINE Beilock, S. L., Afremow, J. A., Rabe, A. L., & Carr, T. H. (2001). "Don't miss!" The debilitating effects of suppressive imagery on golf putting performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 23, 200-221.
USE MENTAL IMAGERY IN INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Lejeune, M., & Decker, C. (1994). Mental rehearsal in table tennis performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 627-641.
IMAGERY REDUCES PERFORMANCE STRESS AND INCREASES SELF-EFFICACY Jones, M. V., Mace, R. D., Bray, S. R., MacRae, A. W., & Stockbridge, C. (2002). The impact of motivational imagery on the emotional state and self-efficacy levels of novice climbers. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25, 57-73.
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