IMAGERY NOT HELPFUL FOR FREE-THROW SHOOTING
Lerner, B, S., Ostrow, A. C., Yura, M. T., & Etzel, E. F. (1996). The effects of goal-setting and imagery training programs on the free-throw performance of female collegiate basketball players. Sport Psychologist, 10, 382-397.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of goal-setting and imagery programs, as well as a combined goal-setting and imagery training program, on the free-throw performance among female collegiate basketball players over the course of an entire season.
A multiple-baseline, A-B-A design was employed in which participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: (a) goal-setting (N = 4), (b) imagery (N = 4), or (c) goal-setting and imagery (N = 4). Ss were the women's basketball team from a small Division III college. Free-throw data were collected during practice sessions. Data were examined by way of changes in mean, level, trend, latency, and variability between baseline and intervention, and then between intervention and a second baseline phase.
Implication. Imagery training may not be beneficial for athletes who are well-practiced in a specific skill such as free-throw shooting.
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