Flynn, M. G., Carroll, K. K., Hall, H. L., Kooiker, B. A., Weideman, C. A., Kasper, C. M., & Brollinson, P. G. (1994). Cross training, indices of training stress and performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(5), Supplement abstract 858.

Fit subjects were assigned to two groups. One performed normal training while in the other, normal running training was supplemented by similar amounts of track or bicycle ergometer work three times per week. After 6 weeks of maintenance training it was found that both groups responded similarly and improved 5 km performance.

Implication. Extra training is not beneficial, whether specific or "cross," when a maximum trained state has been attained. Cross training at that time is not detrimental because it does not detract from maximal stimulation. However, if the extra load of cross training excessively stresses an athlete then maladaptation will result.

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