Bauer, K., Sale, D. G., Zehr, E. P., & Moroz, J. S. (1995). Under- and over-load training effects on ballistic elbow extension performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 126.

The effectiveness of under- and over-load ballistic training on ballistic performance was compared in young men (N = 16). A custom made device allowed the training loads to be performed at defined levels. Training was twice per week for 10 weeks. A set of ballistic elbow extensions was performed at a load of 10% of maximal isometric strength. An additional set of exercises was performed at 0, 10, or 20% maximal isometric strength.

By the end of five weeks of training, an average of 80% of improvement had occurred. Neither the under- nor over-load supplementary ballistic training provided any benefit beyond that attained by training with the target performance load.

Implication. Doing an activity with reduced load to increase speed or heightened load to increase strength, is not supported by this study as a sound training stratagem. Since the activity was ballistic in nature, it can be asserted that using heavy and light bats for batting practice, light or heavy balls for throwing or hitting, etc. will not produce beneficial results over those that will be obtained by using the exact game equipment. For ballistic exercises, training is specific in its effects. Supplemental work does not increase the nature of the specific trained response.

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