ELITE SWIMMERS RESPOND TO TRAINING IN A PARTICULARLY INDIVIDUAL MANNER
Avalos, M., Hellard, P., & Chatard, J-C. (2003). Modeling the training-performance relationship using a mixed model in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 838-846.
The relationship between training and performance was modeled in national and international French competitive swimmers (N = 13). Training effects were studied over three seasons. The annual study period was eight weeks preceding a performance. Three phases were delineated: the first two weeks (early-training); weeks 3, 4, and 5 (mid-training); and weeks 6, 7, and 8 (late-training).
Cluster analysis identified four groups of Ss for reactions to training, which means when Ss were exposed to the same training program there were four different reactions to the same training content. The reactions were as follows:
Between-swimmer differences expanded over the three seasons resulting in greater intra-group variations in the initially identified four groups. The early-training phase responses were negatively related to ultimate performance. The influence of the mid-training phase diminished over the three years while late training increased.
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