Sonstroem, R. J., Harlow, L. L., & Salisbury, K. S. (1993). Path analysis of a self-esteem model across a competitive swim season. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 335-342.

Male (N = 93) high-school swimmers from nine schools were evaluated at pre-, mid-, and post-season using three self-perception scales for specific swim skills, perceived physical competence, and global self-esteem.

A variety of relationships were revealed, some factors relating to performance at different times during the season. However, in general all three measures improved as the season of swimming participation progressed but at different times during the season.

Implication. A high school competitive swimming experience produces positive psychological effects associated with self-perception in males.

Return to Table of Contents for Psychology of Swimming.