Psychountaki, M., & Zervas, Y. (2000). Competitive worries, sport confidence, and performance ratings for young swimmers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 87-94.

Young Greek swimmers (11-12 yr; M = 77; F = 66) were assessed to determine the relationship among competitive worries, sport confidence, and performance. The Trait Competitive Worries Inventory for Children and the Trait Sport Confidence Questionnaire for Children were administered 10-12 days before a winter championships. Immediately before two different races performed on the same or two consecutive days, the State Competitive Worries Inventory for Children and the State Sport Confidence Questionnaire for Children were completed. Performance measures were coach ratings of actual race performances and the extent to which the swimmer achieved goals.

There were significant relationships among trait and state variables, trait General Self-confidence with performance ratings, and both performance ratings. Swimmers with high trait sport confidence have low state competitive worries.

In general, there is a reasonable relationship between trait confidence with competitive state confidence; trait worries with competitive state worries, and these are consistent between races at the same important meet.

Implication. A coach should generate a consistent atmosphere and swimmer expectation (trait-behaviors) for confidence and positiveness at training. That is very likely to carry over to competitive settings and good race performances. Young swimmers who are insecure and negative are not likely to perform well in competitions.

[Resource: Rushall, B. S. (1994). How to develop healthy attitudes towards racing in age-group swimmers. Spring Valley, CA: Sports Science Associates. Published in Sydney, Australia, by New South Wales Swimming Association Incorporated.]

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