Zafiriadis, S., Loutpos, D., Valkoumas, I., & Tsalis, G. (2007). The effect of backstroke swimming using "paddles" and "swim chute" in stroke parameters and in the concentration of lactic acid. Inquiries in Sport and Physical Education, 5, 437-445.

The purpose of this study was to perform a biochemical and kinematic evaluation of three different kinds of 200-m backstroke swimming using a medium (M) 56 strokes/min and a rapid (R) stroke frequency 63 strokes/min. The three forms of swimming were 1) swimming with "paddles", 2) swimming with a "swim chute" and 3) regular swimming. National-level swimmers (N = 10) aged between 15 and 17 years served as Ss. Ss considered backstroke to be their main or secondary swimming style.

Significantly higher levels of lactate occurred in the high rate swimming under each of the three swimming forms. Lactate levels did not differ between the three kinds of swimming during the same stroke frequency. The total concentration levels of lactate in the Ss' blood were not particularly high. Swimming with a swim chute required greater average power in both rates (because of increased resistance) when compared to swimming with "paddles" and regular swimming. Stroke length was greatest with paddles, less with free swimming, and shortest with the highly resistive swim chute.

Implication. The type of swimming aid used affects the average velocity and stroke length, while stroke frequency significantly affects the concentration levels of blood lactate. Stroke length is altered by the swimming aid used.

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