Troup, J. P. (Ed.). (1990). Energy contributions of competitive freestyle events. In International Center for Aquatic Research annual: Studies by the International Center for Aquatic Research 1989-90. Colorado Springs: United States Swimming Press.

One of the differentiating factors between talented and less talented swimmers is the size of the energy systems.

These differences may be explained because of the comparatively higher volume of training that talented athletes can tolerate and perform.

Implication. A drop-off test of maximum swimming or double-arm swim bench pulling can indicate capacities. The total work for 45 seconds can indicate the anaerobic capacity of an athlete. The lower the fall-off from start to finish, the greater the endurance capacity.

Return to Table of Contents for Physiology of Swimming.