The level of activity of the internal and external shoulder rotators is related to level of performance in swimmers. Equal training for both groups of muscles is recommended.
As a performance continues, hand forces decrease due to changes in the angle of attack and velocity. This occurs despite markedly increased muscle activity.
To delay the onset of fatigue effects, attention to hand pitch angles and smoothness of force development should be emphasized.
Implication. Shoulder strength is important for swimming performance. [Despite good strength and mobilization of that strength in the shoulders, hand forces diminish with fatigue. It is worthwhile to experiment with specific exercises to train the muscles of the forearm and wrist to hold desirable pitch angles during the stroke. It is hypothesized that if that strength was increased, the extra shoulder muscle activity would be translated into propulsive force rather than have it dissipated by reducing the angle of attack of the hand.]
Return to Table of Contents for ICAR 1990-91 Report.