The crawlstroke was divided into three underwater phases;
Mechanical efficiency represents how well the body converts energy to power output in the water. Propelling efficiency is a measure of technique. The propelling efficiency of the insweep and finish phases is close to 60% but the catch phase is actually negative and decreases the efficiency of the whole stroke.
Implications. Propelling efficiency more than mechanical efficiency influences swimming performance. Elite swimmers are able to remain more efficient at higher speeds than lesser performers. Aerobic stroking efficiency is better than anaerobic stroking efficiency.
There were some significant statements contained in the chapter that require no further clarification. They are repeated or paraphrased here.
". . Correct technique must be maintained even during difficult sets to correctly train the neuromuscular pathways. . . . Practice does not make perfect -- perfect practice is the key." (p. 79)
Return to Table of Contents for ICAR 1990-91 Report.