Psycharakis, S., & McCabe, C. (2010). Shoulder and hip roll differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl swimming. A paper presented at the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, June 1619, 2010.

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This study examined the influence of breathing on shoulder and hip roll during front crawl swimming. Competitive male swimmers (N = 6) swam two maximum 25-m front crawl trials under different conditions: non-breathing and breathing on the preferred side. The total shoulder roll and hip roll were calculated as the sum of the roll to both sides. Shoulder roll and hip roll were also calculated separately for the breathing side (shoulder roll breathing-stroke; hip roll breathing-stroke) and the non breathing side (shoulder roll non-breathing stroke; hip non-breathing stroke).

Swimming velocity was similar between trials. Total shoulder roll was significantly higher in the breathing trial than in the non-breathing trial. No significant differences were found in the total hip roll whether breathing or not. Shoulder roll was significantly higher than hip roll in both trials. Shoulder roll in the breathing stroke increased significantly in the breathing trial.

Implication. Swimmers increased shoulder roll when breathing by increasing mainly the roll of the shoulders towards the breathing side. Hip roll and swimming velocity are not significantly affected by the breathing action.

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