Cappaert, J. M., Kolmogorov, S., Walker, J., Skinner, J., Rodriguez, F., & Gordon, B. J. (1996). Active drag measurements in elite US swimmers. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 279.

Ss represented crawl and butterfly strokes. Ss performed two maximal 30 m sprints, one trial of free swimming and the other used a hydrodynamic body attached to the swimmer. Assuming equal power output in both swims and knowing the magnitude of the additional drag from the hydrodynamic body, active drag as well as the hydrodynamic coefficient and power output for the swim were calculated.

Male swimmers had twice as much active drag and power output as females in both strokes. Their swimming velocities were at least 0.2 m/s faster than the females. The more objective parameter of the hydrodynamic coefficient seemed to slightly favor the overall swimming technique of females.

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