Abma, C. L., Fry, M. D., Li, Y., & Relyea, G. (2002). Differences in imagery content and imagery ability between high and low confident track and field athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 67-75.

This study examined how high and low trait sport confident track and field athletes (M = 44; F = 67; Division I) differed in imagery content and ability. The Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, Sport Imagery Questionnaire, and the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised were the assessment tools.

High trait sport confident athletes used each imagery category (motivational-general master, motivation general-arousal, motivational specific, cognitive general, and cognitive specific) significantly more than low trait confident athletes. There were no significant differences between the two confidence groups on the two imagery ability subscales (visual, kinesthetic).

Implication. Highly confident athletes use more imagery but do not have higher skills than low-confidence athletes.

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