Moffatt, R. J., Chitwood, L. F., & Biggerstaff, K. D. (1994). The influence of verbal encouragement during assessment of maximal oxygen uptake. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 34, 45-49.

Competitive runners (N = 14) and untrained non-athletes (N = 14) served as Ss. Two maximal treadmill tests were performed, one with and the other without verbal encouragement.

Encouragement resulted in significantly higher VO2max values, longer treadmill run time, and increased RER, maximal heart rate, and lactate values for the untrained Ss. VO2max, RER, and lactate were not affected in the trained runners. Treadmill run time and maximal heart rate were significantly higher with encouragement.

Implication. Social facilitation (encouragement) does change the performance variables of a treadmill test in trained and untrained Ss. Untrained Ss demonstrate changes in more physiological variables than do trained Ss.

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