Cleary, T. J., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Self-regulation differences during athletic practice by experts, non-experts, and novices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 185-206.

Expert, non-expert, and novice adolescent male basketball players (N =43) were interviewed to determine if there were any differences in self-regulatory forethought and self-reflection processes for free-throw shooting. The content surveyed included forethought goals, strategy choice, self-efficacy, as well as self-reflection attributions and feelings of satisfaction as practice proceeded.

Experts set more specific goals, selected more technique-oriented strategies, made more strategy attributions, and displayed higher levels of self-efficacy than non-experts and novices. Knowledge of basketball did not separate the groups. Experts displayed a higher quality of self-regulation during practice.

Implication. Self-regulation at practice is a characteristic displayed to a higher degree by adolescent expert basketball players, than by non-expert and novice players.

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