Nelson Steen, S., Oppliger, R. A., & Scott, J. A. (2001). Ergogenic aids and dietary supplement use in college wrestlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 398.

College wrestlers (N = 737), of which 225 were freshmen and the remainder upperclassmen, indicated from a list of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements, which were used in-season, out-of-season, and at both times.

The main substances used to increase muscle mass were creatine 38%), protein powder (28.4%), amino acids (13.7%), glutamine (6.4%), HMB (5.7%), androstenedione (4.5%), DHEA (2.1%). Caffeine (12.8%) and ephedrine (4.8%) were used to increase energy. Echinacea (4.6%) was used to help the immune system. Dietary supplements were taken mainly to help the immune system and increase energy (multi-vitamins 27.3%; vitamin C 20.4%; multi-minerals 10.7%; vitamin E 9.5%, and B-complex 7.5%). Muscle-building substances were used more out of season than in-season.

Implication. Wrestlers ingest supplements largely with little knowledge about their lack of effect or need.

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