Delbeke, F. T., Desmet, N., & Debackere, M. (1995). The abuse of doping agents in competing body builders in Flanders (1988-1993). International Journal of Sports Medicine, 16, 66-70.

Findings of unannounced drug testing (doping control) on body builders in Flanders during 1988-93 were reported. Between 38 and 53% of tested athletes were found positive over this period. There was no evidence of a fall in drug use during this time. Steroids were taken despite membership in an organization against the use of anabolic steroids. In 1988 and 1989 nandrolone and testosterone were the most popular steroids. From 1990 on, injectable steroids (e.g., nandrolone, metenolone, drostanolone, and testosterone) were most prevalent. Using more than one drug was popular and often stimulants and diuretics were used in combination. The beta agonist clenbuterol was detected several times in 1991, one year before its appearance in other sports.

Implication. Individuals will use performance-enhancing drugs irrespective of the rules, philosophies, or protestations of organizations.

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