Hiller, W. D., Fortess, E. E., Wong, D. L., O'Toole, M. L., Dierenfield, L. M., Titchenal, C. A., Thrower-Rodriguez, T. R., Nielsen, G., R., & Seligman, J. R. (2000). Elite triathletes' results from a "live high, train low" regimen. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1220.

Olympic distance triathletes (M = 8; F = 6) lived for 30 days at 2,100 m (~12.5 hr/day) and trained at sea level. [Athletes acted as their own controls, that is, there was no control group. There was no attempt to control any factors that might affect the response to exercise (e.g., recovery).

VO2max increased consistently by 7.9% in the live high, train low phase. Power to weight ratio on a cycle ergometer increased by 21.8%. Hemoglobin, red blood cell volume, and hematocrit rose significantly. Lean muscle mass decreased initially and then gradually returned to norm. Two females did not respond to the HiLo regimen.

Ss in this study responded in many beneficial ways. That contrasts to other studies that show no changes (e.g., VO2max) to the same type of training protocol.

Implication. HiLo training might affect several factors involved with endurance performance, although not all athletes respond appropriately.

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