Wrisberg, C. A., & Anshel, C. A. (1997). The use of positively-worded performance reminders to reduce warm-up decrement in the field hockey penalty shot. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, 229-240.

After the rest period following a warm-up there often is a depression in eventual performance. This is known as "warm-up decrement." It is possible to perform activities during that "rest" period that will prevent reduction of the quality of ensuing activity.

This study considers the effects of three types of activity that could be used in the post-warm-up period. Male field-hockey players were divided into three groups: a control group that rested and performed no directed physical or mental activity; a positive-word group who reviewed positively-worded reminders about performance factors and skills; and a negative-word group who reviewed negatively-worded reminders.

It was found that the positive-word group showed no eventual performance diminution but the control and negative-word group did.

Implication. After warm-up, the review of positively-worded items that are performance and skill relevant could be a valuable addition to competition preparation behaviors. Such an activity is likely to increase the likelihood of an expected-level of competition performance. This activity might also be appropriate for sports that have intermittent forced rests (e.g., gymnastics) during their conduct.

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