Wilson, G. V., & Kerr, J. H. (1999). Affective responses to success and failure: A study of winning and losing in competitive rugby. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 85-99.

Mood measures were administered pre- and postgame at four games (2 games won, 2 games lost) to Dutch male rugby players.

Winning produced a range of pleasant emotional outcomes and reductions in arousal and stress, while losing produced strong unpleasant emotional changes, a reduction in arousal, but no reduction in stress.

Implication. Winning changes mood states in a positive way. However, losing does not reduce stress and provokes unpleasant emotions. To alleviate the negative aspects of losing, a coping procedure that possibly reduces the emphasis on losing and focuses on future activities that could raise the probability of winning in the next contest, should be constructed.

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