Wanlin, C. M., Hrycaiko, D. W., Martin, G. L., & Mahon, M. (1997). The effects of a goal-setting package on the performance of speed skaters. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, 212-228.

Female speed skaters (N= 4) were exposed to a goal-setting package that included mission development, long-term goal-setting, subgoal and practice goal-setting, self-talk, and goal visualization. Various practice behaviors, such as lap frequency, number of assigned drills completed, 500-m pursuit race times, and the frequency and duration of off-task behavior were evaluated.

All practiced features improved as did practice race times when the goal-setting package was introduced.

Implication. The quality, meaningfulness, and relevance of practice session content will govern the performance quality of athlete's practices. Educating athletes about a goal-setting package, such as that used in this study, will increase the quality of athletes' application to training.

Return to Table of Contents for this issue.