Scott, L. M., Scott, D., Bedic, S. P., & Dowd, J. (1999). The effect of associative and dissociative strategies on rowing ergometer performance. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 57-68.

Novice rowers (M = 4; F = 5) performed multiple 40-minute rows on a Concept II rowing ergometer. Ss were divided into three groups, each experiencing a different condition: listening to a task-related "associative" audio tape that included reference to experiences associated with the ergometer task; listening to a "dissociative music" tape, and watching a "dissociative videotape" of races from the 1992 World Rowing championships.

Multiple baselines consistently demonstrated independent replications. The associative tape condition produced increased performance levels without any overlapping data points. The dissociative music condition did not produce any marked performance changes. The dissociative videotape produced small improvements with overlapping data points in two of the three Ss. Clearly, the associative condition was most effective.

Implication. Associative thinking, that is attending to the sensations and elements of the task at hand, produces clear demonstrative improvements in rowing ergometer performance in novice athletes.

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