Hausenblas, H. A., Hall, C. R., Rodgers, W. M., & Munroe, K. J. (1999). Exercise imagery: Its nature and measurement. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 171-180.

The purposes of this study were to examine the nature of exercise imagery and to develop a questionnaire to assess exercise imagery in aerobic exercisers.

It was found that exercisers use imagery at various times and that they do it for three main reasons.

  1. Imagining becoming healthier and improving physical appearance.
  2. For psychological management (e.g., psyching-up, becoming energized).
  3. Preparing to perform the skills and sequences required in routines.

Imagery use distinguished between avid exercisers and less frequent exercisers.

A questionnaire, the Exercise Imagery Questionnaire -- Aerobic Version, was developed to assess the above factors.

Implication. Serious aerobic exercisers deliberately use imagery.

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