Morrow, S. K., Bishop, P.A., & Teare-Ketter, C. A. (1992). Energy costs of self-paced walking with hand-held weights. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63, 435-437.

When hand-held weights are used for exercise and performance speeds are not maintained, self-paced exercisers slow down to negate any extra overload that might be developed with the extra weights.

Implication. For hand-held weights to be beneficial exercisers must maintain both exercise speed and extent of arm swing. If those factors are not monitored, individuals slow down and shorten the arm action resulting in continued work of the same intensity as that attained without the weights.

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