Turk, D. C., Meichenbaum, D., & Genest, M. (1983). Pain and behavioral medicine. New York: Guilford.

After reviewing the use of cognitive strategies in psychology it was concluded that it is not the strategy itself, but the participants' attitudes and sense of confidence about the strategy that are influential on performance.

Implication. Athletes must have experienced training successes in competition elements and believe that how their performances will be conducted will also be successful for good competitive performances to occur.

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