Kongstvedt, S. J. (1987). Cognitive approaches to pain control: Common factors underlying their effectiveness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 538-541.

Pain reduction seems to be influenced, to some degree, by placebo effects. That may be why beliefs and hypnosis work well.

The underlying beliefs of an athlete will govern the type of competitive response. Therefore, it is imperative that the content of training matches the competition for self-efficacy/beliefs/placebos to take hold. Some athletes are more susceptible to suggestions/placebos than others.

Implication. Beliefs about performance potential can be affected positively by the successful practice of contest-specific training content. A coach talking about positive transfer will not be as effective as allowing the actual practice of performing well in "simulation" activities.

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