Thayer, R. E. (1978). Toward a psychological theory of multidimensional activation (arousal). Motivation and Emotion, 2, 1-34.

Arousal has two dimensions: (a) energy-sleep, and (b) tension-placidity.

Low arousal is commonly associated with uncritical attending to irrelevant cues.

Implication. Complacency and overconfidence predispose athletes to inferior performances because they are states which do not energize focused performance.

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