Etzel, E. F., Jr. (1979). Validation of a conceptual model characterizing attention among international rifle shooters. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 280-290.

TAIS may not be a good predictor of sport performance because it may be based on an incomplete theoretical model. Several components of attention are missing in Nideffer's conceptualization. In addition to the internal-external continuum and broad-narrow breadth of focus, the following need to be considered to derive a fuller perspective of attention in sport.

  1. Attentional intensitivity or conscious sensitivity to task-related stimuli [Keele, S. (1973). Attention and human performance. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear].
  2. Attentional selecting of only appropriate stimuli [Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.].
  3. Duration of attention to specific task-related stimuli.
  4. The amount of attentional capacity used to perform a given task.

Implication. More factors other than those considered by the TAIS need to be understood and measured before attentional style/capacity can be deemed useful for sports.

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