Dirienzo, G. M. (1989). The effects of learning versus performance strategies on the acquisition of putting skill. Dissertation Abstracts International, A50/5, 1250.

The effects of a learning strategy (imagery, location cues, internal focusing, and error detection and correction) was compared to a performance strategy (mental rehearsal, relaxation, and external focusing) on a putting task. Ss using the learning strategy experienced a constant reduction in distance error and putting variability, producing putts that were consistently closer to the hole than the performance strategy and control groups. The strategy for learning a task is different to the final strategy that is used when the task is mastered.

Implication. How to do the task is important during the learning process. The elements of what should be done to govern the skill elements and the decisions surrounding the skill execution are important for producing skill change. Attention to the more popular "sport psychology" activities of mental rehearsal, relaxation, etc., is not appropriate in skill acquisition.

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