Salmon, J., Hall, C., & Haslam, I. (1994). The use of imagery by soccer players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 6, 116-133.

Soccer players from national, provincial, and local levels (N = 362) were tested on the Imagery Use Questionnaire. Imagery tended to be used more in conjunction with competition than training and more for motivation (e.g., psyche-ups) than its cognitive function (e.g., practice of skills and strategies). Elite athletes reported more imagery use than non-elite athletes regardless of the function it served.

One theoretical model for imagery uses is that of Paivio [Paivio, A. (1985). Cognitive and motivational functions of imagery in human performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport sciences, 10, 22S-28S.]. It is presented below in table form to facilitate a better understanding of various imagery uses and forms.

Paivio's Model: Functions of Imagery

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