Hecker, J. E., & Kaczor, L. M. (1988). Application of imagery theory to sport psychology. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 363-373.

Heart rate and vividness increased when the scene imagined was vigorous and one with which the S was familiar (e.g., working very hard in a weight room with heart pounding). Nonsignificant physiological changes were noted when imagery was of an action scene but one with which the Ss had no experience.

Implication. The more exposure to an incident that an athlete has, the more vivid is the experience when imagining it. This suggests that mental practice for performance enhancement would be more effective when athletes have had physical practice sessions which more closely resemble situations that may arise in competitions ("simulation training").

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