Denis, M. (1985). Visual imagery and the use of mental practice in the development of motor skills. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 4S-16S.

Three properties of imagery skill were defined.

  1. Vividness. Better imagers learn skills quicker. Teaching how to develop high levels of vividness would be an essential step in developing the skill.
  2. Controllability. The capacity to generate persistent images ensures a practice of a specific performance. If control was absent, resulting in variations, specific beneficial effects would not result.
  3. Exactness of reference. The exact replication of successful performances is required. Research has shown that practicing errors or wrong images produces a tendency to perform those errors.

Implication. Developing the skill of imagery requires an intense involvement in the process. That involvement needs to be vivid, controlled, and only of correct form.

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