Biddle, S. H. (1985). Mental preparation, mental practice and strength tasks: a need for clarification. Journal of Sports Sciences, 3, 67-74.

"Mental preparation effects are not explained through increased arousal alone . . . arousal can be two dimensional (energy-sleep and tension-placidity) . . . although the motor behavior literature has generally implied only an energy sleep arousal dimension." (p. 71)

Implication. Imagery group Ss experienced elevated levels of tension-related arousal, while arousal group Ss experienced energy-related arousal. The effects of these two conditions are different and so the task-imagery characteristics need to be carefully determined to produce performance change.

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