Fehling, P. C., Alkel, L., Clasey, J., Rector, A., & Stillman, R. J. (1995). A comparison of bone mineral densities among female athletes in impact loading and active loading sports. Bone, 17, 205-210.

Bone mineral densities in college female athletes in volleyball (N = 8), gymnastics (N = 13), and swimming (N = 7) were compared to a control group (N = 17).

A regional analysis of total body scans indicated the following.

Implication. Bone mineral density in women is only affected by impactful highly-exertional activities. General rhythmic moderately loaded activities, such as swimming, do not influence bone mineral density.

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