ALTITUDE TRAINING AND ITS EFFECTS ON HIGHLY-TRAINED SWIMMERS
Rushall, B. S. (1996). Pre-publication abstract: Altitude training and its effects on highly-trained swimmers. Carlile Coaches' Forum, 3(4), 1-4.
The scientific evidence associated with altitude acclimatization and performance in elite swimmers is reviewed extensively in the yet-to-be-published paper, "Altitude training and elite swimmers." The authors are: Brent S. Rushall, Michael J. Buono, and Anthony A. Sucec, Professors of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences at San Diego State University, and Alan D. Roberts, Associate-Professor of Sports Studies at the University of Canberra. The article is the most detailed and up-to-date treatment of the topic available.
Initial attention is paid to the manner in which the human body acclimatizes (adapts) to passive and active stresses. Those reactions are then meshed with the published works on altitude acclimatization that are valid for swimming. With altitude training featuring as an expensive part of the annual plans of several nations, it is of value to consider the summary implications of this research article.
". . . acclimatization responses often are used as the theoretical justification for sea-level performance improvements. The reasoning is: improved oxygen transport at altitude must produce improved oxygen transport, and therefore physical performance, at sea-level. Yet only at altitudes in excess of 3,000 m do these changes occur fully and eventually. At those altitudes it is not possible to perform the volume and intensity of beneficial high-level training that can be accomplished at sea-level. That produces a dilemma: is it better to have (a) an altered physiology and less training volume and quality or (b) full training without the altered physiology? The evidence strongly suggests the latter. However, the implication for the physiological adaptations does not stop there. Since most "altitude" camps are conducted at low altitudes (e.g., in Australia they range from 1,600 to 2,000 m), acclimatization responses are not guaranteed to occur in their entirety or to their maximum level. Low altitude partial physiological acclimatization usually will not produce a physiological state that can be "theoretically" justified to improve sea-level performance.
Further problems arise with the concept of relatively brief exposures to low altitude training camps. If an athlete is responsive to the low hypoxic levels at such camps, considerable time will still be needed before all acclimation responses can be completed. Usually a three-week training camp will not produce beneficial physiological states (if they exist) but will only produce disruption to a normal training program. Consistent training stimuli will not be maintained because of: (a) travel to the camp, (b) initial shock reactions to the new mild hypoxic stimulus which reduces the capacity to train, and (c) continued compromised training programs that do not support either or both the intensity or volume of work that can be sustained by elite athletes at sea-level.
It is popular in some countries to conduct several short-term training camps at altitude as part of an annual training plan. Support for benefits from such plans is not available in the form of objective evidence. Essentially, they will amount to training interruptions accompanied by unrelated and partial stress acclimatizations which will be reversed upon return to non-hypoxic altitudes (e.g., sea-level). Despite what is known about acclimatization to training and altitude stresses, influential coaches persist with such usually expensive camps.
There is no objective justification for conducting low-altitude short-duration training camps with a view to deriving effects that will benefit sea-level performances in highly-trained swimmers."
The summary of the article is mainly in point form. Those points are listed below for their import is obvious.
"This paper has reported and interpreted research on altitude acclimatization and performance in highly-trained elite athletes. The major points determined are listed below.
These changes need to be qualified.
These factors lead to the conclusion that altitude training is not an avenue for enhancing the sea-level performances of highly-trained swimmers. The practice of conducting altitude training camps for elite swimmers is not justified on either physiological grounds or performance benefits."
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