Muhamed, A. M. (2013). Mouth rinsing during exercise in the Ramadan fast state improves endurance performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(5), Supplement abstract number 2405.

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"During Ramadan, fasted Muslims do not eat or drink (i.e., total abstinence from food and fluids) from pre-dawn until dusk. High-intensity endurance performance has been shown to be adversely affected during Ramadan fasting."

This study examined the effects of mouth-rinsing with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance performance of young trained male cyclists (N = 9) in the acute Ramadan fasted state. Ss performed three experimental exercise trials: 1) 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte mouth-rinse, 2) placebo-rinse (artificial sweetener with matched color and taste), and 3) a no-rinse trial in random order. All sessions were conducted during the last 12 days of Ramadan at the same time of day (~12-14 hours post-prandial sahur meal, i.e., last main meal before commencement of the days fast) in a 32C and 75%RH environment. Endurance performance consisted of 30 minutes pre-loading cycling at 65% VO2peak followed by a 10-km time-trial. During exercise, Ss mouth-rinsed 25 ml of the given solution for five seconds and expectorated the same volume, at rest, 5, 15, and 25 minutes of the pre-loading cycle and just prior to the start of the 10-km time-trial.

Completion of the time-trial was significantly faster in the carbohydrate-electrolyte and placebo solution trials compared to the no-rinse trial. There were significant differences between trials in heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. There were no significant differences between trials in rectal temperature, oxygen uptake, or blood glucose.

Implication. Mouth-rinsing with either a carbohydrate-electrolyte or placebo (water) solution enhances endurance performance in the Ramadan fasted state.

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