Stegeman, J. (translated by J. S. Skinner). (1981) Exercise physiology. Chicago, IL: Year Book Medical Publishers..

Stegeman (1981, p. 273) described the research that showed that strength improvement is not possible without a surplus of protein. Thus, during the time that athletes are endeavoring to become stronger dietary considerations should be given to emphasizing slightly more protein than usual. Care should be taken to not increase fat intake with increased supplemental protein.

Stegeman (1981, p. 272) indicated that normally, only about two-thirds of all muscle fibers can be voluntarily innervated at the same time.

Strength gained in a quick fashion will be lost quickly. Strength which is gained slowly will be lost slowly.

The trainability of muscle strength depends greatly on the concentration of testosterone. Thus, there is a modification in the strength training response depending upon the age and sex of the athlete.

Concerns have been raised about the effects of intense strength training and the acceleration of strength gains through the use of steroids. Tendons, ligaments, and bony structures are basically strength-trainable, but their rate of response is much slower than that which occurs with muscle. As a general rule, the trainability of any tissue is proportional to its metabolic level at rest. Thus, if an increase in muscle strength is too rapid, as occurs with intense strength training programs that are common in professional sports, or through the use of steroids, the slower adapting connective and supportive tissues are left behind in terms of their rate of adaptation. This results in the muscle being too strong for associated connective tissues and structures. This increases the likelihood of injury. This could be one explanation for why professional athletes in sports such as football are showing increased rates of injury. The very strength development programs to which they are subjected are so intense that the resulting imbalance between muscles and supporting tissues predisposes them to injury, the exact opposite of the intention of such programs.

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