Hellard, P., Avalos, M., Lacoste, L., Barale, F., Chatard, J., & Millet, G. P. (2006). Assessing the limitations of the Banister model in monitoring training. Journal of Sports Science, 24, 509-520.

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This study performed a statistical analysis of the Banister model to verify how useful it is in monitoring the training programs of elite swimmers. The accuracy, ill-conditioning, and stability of this model were thus investigated. Training loads of elite swimmers (N = 9), measured over one season, were related to performances with the Banister model. Firstly, to assess accuracy, the 95% bootstrap confidence interval (95% CI) of parameter estimates and modeled performances were calculated. Secondly, to study ill-conditioning, the correlation matrix of parameter estimates was computed. Finally, to analyze stability, iterative computation was performed with the same data but minus one randomly chosen performance.

Performances were significantly related to training loads in all Ss and the estimation procedure seemed to be stable. Nevertheless, the 95% CI of the most useful parameters for monitoring training were wide. Some parameters were highly correlated making their interpretation worthless

Implication. There are possible ways to deal with these problems in the Bannister model. Alternative methods to model the training-performance relationships could be more useful and accurate.

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