JOCK-IDENTITY IN WHITE ADOLESCENTS IS THE FACTOR MOST ASSOCIATED WITH DELINQUENCY
Miller, K. E., Melnick, M. J., Barnes, G. M., Sabo, D., & Farrell, M. P. (2007). Athletic involvement and adolescent delinquency. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 36, 711–723.
"Although conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed". Western New York adolescents (N = 600) were examined for self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity and a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted delinquent behaviors but jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents.
Implication. "Jock-identity" is the characteristic of athletes that is associated with delinquency in white adolescents.
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