Luttgens, K., & Hamilton, N. (1997). Kinesiology: Scientific basis of human motion. Madison, W: Brown & Benchmark.

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The general understanding of the involvement of the brain in human movements was explained by Luttgens and Hamilton (1997).

"The cerebral cortex . . . is the level at which consciousness occurs and the level responsible fore the initiation of voluntary movement. The cerebral cortex contains a moror area situation in front of the transverse central fissure known as the precentral gyrus. Within this ear, all body parts are represented by an area whose size correlates with the complexity or precision of the body part. Therefore, the area representing the thumb and fingers requires a larger area than that representing the foot. Movements, mot muscles, are represented here. The premotor area located in front of the motor cortex is responsible for learning complex acts". (p. 99).

Implication. The above description illustrates the very general understanding of the involvement of the brain in human movement up until the mid-1990's. It largely illustrates the concept of parts of the brain being discretely associated with individual body parts. However, technological improvements have shown not only regions of the brain associated with moving body parts but the regions associated with different types of movements and sensations in those body parts. Movement sites and types are represented by discrete patterns of brain activation at a level of complexity and discreteness not previously recognized.

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