Coelho, R. W., Keller, B., Justus, F. B., & Tempski, R. (2009). Effect of multi-modal imagery intervention on pre-competitive anxiety and stress levels in elite tennis players. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 2577.

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This study investigated the effect of multi-modal imagery on anxiety and perceived stress levels in tennis players. A quasi-experimental design included pre- and post-treatment test Ss and a control group. Male tennis players (N = 49), ranging in age from 16 to 18 years, were divided into two groups: (1) a treatment multi-modal imagery group, and (2) a placebo imagery group used as the control group. The 27-item Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2) was used to assess anxiety and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) to assess stress. The treatment involved a multi-modal (relaxation, imagery, and behavior modeling video) intervention conducted three times per week for 25 minutes after ordinary technical and physical practice for a period of nine weeks between tournaments.

There were main effects for both perceived stress and anxiety subscales between the two groups, between both pre- and post-treatment, and interaction between groups and time of evaluation. There were main effects for perceived stress, cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence. There was no effect for somatic anxiety.

Implication. A multi-modal imagery intervention represents a useful tool to build self-confidence and to lower cognitive anxiety and perceived stress levels in tennis players.

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