Wakayoshi, K., Yoshida, T., & Moritani, T. (1993). Does critical swimming velocity represent exercise intensity at maximal lactate steady state? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25(5), Supplement abstract 366.

It was found that a maximum swimming pace somewhere between 200 m and 400 m pace is the level of maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). A conservative estimate would be 400 m pace although others (e.g., ICAR) suggest that pace would be more of a lactate tolerance pace than MLSS.

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