PROBLEMS WITH HEART RATES AND SWIMMING
Ueda, T., & Kurokawa, T. (1995). Relationships between perceived exertion and physiological variables during swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 16, 385-389.
"HR during swimming has some practical drawbacks that should be taken into consideration. For example, HR in water is 10 to 20 beats/min lower than in air . . . and is easily influenced by water temperature . . . Measuring HR by palpitate method is impractical. The palpitate method is also known to be rather inaccurate at HR over 130 beats/min" (p. 385).
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