Rennie, M. J. (2003). Claims for the anabolic effects of growth hormone: A case of the emperor's new clothes? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 100-105.

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Evidence that growth hormone has metabolic effects in adult human beings was investigated. It was concluded that growth hormone has powerful effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and in particular promotes the metabolic use of adipose tissue triacylglycerol. However, there is no proof that net protein retention is promoted in adults, except possibly of connective tissue. The overexaggeration of the effects of growth hormone in muscle building effectively promotes its abuse and thereby encourages athletes and elderly men to expose themselves to an increased risk of disease for little benefit.

Implication. Growth hormone is not a hormone that promotes muscle function. Therefore, it is an ineffective avenue for performance-enhancement.

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