POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE THINKING
Taylor, D. E. M. (1979). Human endurance - mind or muscle? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 179-184.
Subjects were 5 male officer cadets, aged 19-23 years exposed to a variety of "atmospheres" while undergoing particularly challenging and enduring tasks.
Implication. Do not add stress in competitions - the disruption has a physiological cost. Do not change the perception of external pressures or the task once a contest begins.
Implication. Self-efficacy is increased if there is a perceived probability of positive outcomes.
Implication. Performance threats during an activity are stressful and reduce performance potential and the quality of the performance.
If a person believes he/she will not be successful or survive, then a psychological stress-spiral is induced resulting in an inappropriate cardiovascular response with tachycardia and hypertension in excess of cardiac output changes stimulated by the exercise. It is caused by too much adrenaline rather than too little. When a person believes he/she will be successful, no change in cardiovascular response will occur while performance will be improved by increased power and sustained effort.
If an athlete views a competitive situation as being stressful or negative, then physiological functioning will be less efficient than when it is viewed in a positive light.
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