Schwartz, R., & Gottman, J. (1974). A task analysis approach to clinical problems: A study of assertive behavior. Unpublished manuscript, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

In high-assertive Ss there was a marked excess of positive over negative self-statements and usually little doubt about the appropriateness of actions. In contrast, low-assertive Ss had equal positive and negative self-statements which appeared to compete against each and thus, interfered with personal behavior.

Implication. Examples of purely positive statements are:

"I will perform my best," "I will set the tempo of the game," "She had better watch out as I am ready for this match."

Examples of negative or doubting statements that reduce assertiveness are:

"I hope I can put on a good show against him," "If I could just score some points," "I pray that I will perform well."

Teaching athletes to perform positive/assertive statements and using them frequently in self-talk prior to competitions would contribute to desirable forms of event preparation.

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