Miller, M. (1993). Efficacy strength and performance in competitive swimmers of different skill levels. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 284-296.

Efficacy strength was found to have a highly significant relationship with competitive performance in all levels of swimmers. When it was high, performance was enhanced; when it was low, performance was impaired. Neither skill nor motivation had a significant effect upon performance. It also was found that the size of the difference in efficacy scores between low and high groups increased as the standard of swimmer increased although the difference in performance increased.

Implication. Self-efficacy is a factor that needs to be accentuated in higher level swimmers. Its effect could be a major factor in determining small and difficult to attain improvements.

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